A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure.
The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction. This is called a check valve, as it prevents or "checks" the flow in one direction.
Valves have many uses, including controlling water for Irrigation, industrial uses for controlling processes, residential uses such as on / off & pressure control to dish and clothes washers & taps in the home. Even aerosols have a tiny valve built in. Valves are also used in the military & transport sectors.
Valves are found in virtually every industrial process, including water & sewage processing, mining, power generation, processing of oil, gas & petroleum, food manufacturing, chemical & plastic manufacturing and many other fields.
In developed nations we use valves in our daily lives, the most noticeable are plumbing valves, such as taps for tap water. Other familiar examples include gas control valves on cookers, small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers, safety devices fitted to hot water systems, and valves in car engines.
In nature there can be found examples of valves, for example veins acting as valves are controlling the blood circulation & heart valves control the flow of blood in the chambers of the heart and maintain the correct pumping action.
Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever, pedal or wheel. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature, or flow. These changes may act upon a diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers.
More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external input (i.e., regulating flow through a pipe to a changing set point) require an actuator. An actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.
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